EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Pathology's future depends on training pathologists who are as facile with new technologies as they are with the microscope. Trainees must absorb, assimilate, and be ready to apply an unprecedented breadth of scientific and technologic knowledge and concepts and apply these skills as part of the patient treatment team. During the past decade, several pathology surveys have identified gaps in resident preparation for practice. The identified gaps typically involve a minority of trainees and may be more evident in certain practice settings, such as high-volume general practice. However, as pathology practice continues to evolve, these gaps are becoming more evident and problematic. Action is needed now because the process of training a new pathologist spans 4 to 6 years (anatomic pathology [AP], clinical pathology [CP], or more commonly AP/CP, plus 1 or 2 fellowships) or 10 years if medical school education is included.