Introduction Beginning in the 1990s, the discipline of African-American Studies underwent a second renaissance in higher education. This renaissance is an extension of the struggle and foundation established for over two decades. The visibility, growth and institutionalization of the Africana Studies enterprise continues to flourish as we enter the 21st century. Contrary to its controversial formative era (1968-1972), the discipline of Africana Studies now receives primarily favorable national media attention. Moreover, several institutions of higher education have developed new African-American Studies degree programs, both at the graduate and undergraduate level. Yet, in the midst of its resurgence, observers of the discipline have noted the tendency among Black Studies academic units to neglect its "empowerment" mission (Sharlett, 2000, A18-A20). From its inception, at the core of the Black Studies enterprise was the central mission to empower people of African descent. And, in the 1980s, the National Council for Black Studies (NCBS), adopted and began to promote vigorously "academic excellence and social responsibility" (Aldridge and Young, 2000). Unfortunately, with respect to its social responsibility imperative, observers assert that "for the last two decades, Black Studies has been remiss in that mission (Karenga, 2000, 163).