This paper presents unique evidence on health workers’ career choices in Ethiopia. It shows that challenges like health workers’ limited willingness to work in rural areas, as well as their likelihood to migrate abroad vary substantially and are correlated with background, motivation, and job satisfaction. Governments in Africa have identified human resources for health as a priority to improve health outcomes. This study is a valuable resource to better understand health worker choices and help toward the design of more effective human resource policies. This working paper was produced as part of the World Bank’s Africa Region Health Systems for Outcomes (HSO) Program. The Program, funded by the World Bank, the Government of Norway, the Government of the United Kingdom and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), focuses on strengthening health systems in Africa to reach the poor and achieve tangible results related to Health, Nutrition and Population. The main pillars and focus of the program center on knowledge and capacity building related to Human Resources for Health, Health Financing, Pharmaceuticals, Governance and Service Delivery, and Infrastructure and ICT.