Genomics is the study of the entire human genome. Genomics explores not only the actions of single genes, but also the interactions of multiple genes with each other and with the environment. As a result, genomics has great potential for improving the health of the public. However, realizing the benefits of genomics requires a systematic evaluation of its potential contributions and an understanding of the information necessary to facilitate the translation of research findings into public health strategies. In October 2004, the Institute of Medicine convened a workshop to discuss major scientific and policy issues related to genomics and public health, examine major supports for and challenges to the translation of genetic research into population health benefits, and suggest approaches for the integration of genomic information into strategies for promoting health and preventing disease. Implications of Genomics for Public Health summarizes the discussions and presentations from this workshop.